Ahmet Akıcı1, Mustafa Ümit Uğurlu2, İbrahim Topçu3, Hüseyin Yılmaz4, Dilek Demircan1

1Department of Pharmacology, Marmara University Faculty of Medicine, İstanbul, Turkey
2Department of General Surgery, Marmara University Faculty of Medicine, İstanbul, Turkey
3İstanbul Public Health Center, İstanbul, Turkey
4İstanbul Directorate of Health, İstanbul, Turkey


Objective: Controlled drugs are commonly used in preoperative, per-operative and postoperative periods. In this study, the surgical prescriptions of controlled drugs during the operative period were evaluated.

Material and Methods: Prescriptions of controlled drugs written between January to December 2009 were investigated in the archives of the Istanbul Directorate of Health. In total, 660 prescriptions with a diagnosis of surgical intervention were retrospectively evaluated and compared by the surgical and internal medicine sections.

Results: Surgical sections prescribed 72.7% of the controlled drugs and 89.5% of prescriptions were for green colored scripts. The physicians of the surgical sections were found to prescribe more of the red colored scripts than the physicians of the internal medicine sections. Most of the prescriptions were written for women (58.8%) and mostly from private hospitals (40.9%). Among all the physicians, orthopedic surgeons mostly prescribes controlled scripts (20.9%). Tramadol was found to be the most commonly prescribed controlled drug (55.5%).

Conclusion: Controlled drugs, which have difficult prescription procedures, are used frequently in surgical interventions. The study shows that not only surgeons, but internal medicine physicians also prefer to prescribe these groups of drugs. The study provides important clues to the usage patterns of controlled drugs. Recently evolving health care systems including prescriptions should use these findings obtained from the study.

Keywords: Surgical intervention, controlled drugs, green coloured scripts, red coloured scripts


Peer Review

Externally peer-reviewed.

Author Contributions

Study concept and design - A.A., M.Ü.U., İ.T., H.Y., D.D.; Acquisition of data - A.A., M.Ü.U., İ.T., H.Y.; Analysis and interpretation of data - A.A., M.Ü.U., İ.T., H.Y.; Preparation of the manuscript - A.A., M.Ü.U.; Statistical analysis - A.A., M.Ü.U., D.D.

Conflict of Interest

No conflict of interest was declared by the authors.

Financial Disclosure

The authors declared that this study has received no financial support.