Male breast cancer
Şerife Şimsek, Metin Çakmakçı
Acıbadem Sağlık Grubu, Genel Cerrahi Departmanı, İSTANBUL
Carcinoma of the breast in male gender is rare, presents less than 1% of all breast cancers. Risk factors include these following characteristics: family history, genetic abnormalities,conditions associated with relative hyper estrogenism, prior chest wall irradiation and some drugs.Most patients present with a painless, firm, subareolar lump, may be associated by clinical gynecomastia and nipple retraction, a bloody nipple discharge, skin ulceration and Paget's disease.
The most common types of invasive carcinoma are infiltrating ductal adeno carcinoma and papillary carcinoma. Diagnostic tools are meticulous history and clinical examination. Mammography may be helpful. Magnetic resonance imaging in male breast cancer might has same benefits and restrictions as in female breast cancer. Surgery remains the most important and effective treatment modality for breast cancer in men. Sentinel lymph node biopsy seems to be a simple and reliable method for staging the axilla accurately, avoiding unnecessary radical treatment of uninvaded lymph nodes. The role of adjuvant therapy in male breast cancer is less well established than those in female cancer and has not been evaluated in randomized clinical trials. Hormonal therapy is recommended in all receptor-positive patients. There is a clear indication for radiotherapy when it is impossible to lift the entire tumour burden from the axilla.
Keywords: Male, breast, cancer