Tarıq Madkhali, Amal Alhefdhi, Herbert Chen, Dawn Elfenbein

Department of Surgery, University of Wisconsin, Madison, USA


Primary hyperparathyroidism is a common endocrine disorder caused by overactivation of parathyroid glands resulting in excessive release of parathyroid hormone. The resultant hypercalcemia leads to a myriad of symptoms. Primary hyperparathyroidism may increase a patient’s morbidity and even mortality if left untreated. During the last few decades, disease presentation has shifted from the classic presentation of severe bone and kidney manifestations to most patients now being diagnosed on routine labs. Although surgery is the only curative therapy, many advances have been made over the past decades in the diagnosis and the surgical management of primary hyperparathyroidism. The aim of this review is to summarize the characteristics of the disease, the work up, and the treatment options.

Keywords: Primary hyperparathyroidism, parathyroid hormone, parathyroidectomy


Peer Review

This manuscript was prepared by the invitation of the Editorial Board and its scientific evaluation was carried out by the Editorial Board.

Author Contributions

Concept - T.M., A.A., H.C., D.E.; Design - T.M., A.A., D.E.; Supervision - A.A., H.C., D.E.; Data Collection and/or Processing - T.M.; Analysis and/or Interpretation - T.M; Literature Search - T.M., A.A.; Writing Manuscript - T.M., A.A.; Critical Review - H.C., D.E.

Conflict of Interest

No conflict of interest was declared by the authors.

Financial Disclosure

The authors declared that this study has received no financial support.