Maximilian Nösser, Linda Feldbrügge, Johann Pratschke

Department of Surgery, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Charité Mitte and Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Berlin, Germany


Minimally invasive liver surgery (MILS) was established as last abdominal surgical specialty through the 1990s. With a shift from mainly benign to malignant indications, MILS was shown to be equal to open liver surgery in terms of oncological outcomes, with benefits in intraoperative blood loss, postoperative pain, postoperative complication rates, hospital length of stay and quality of life. With colorectal liver metastases and hepatocellular carcinoma as the most common indications, most liver resection can be performed minimally invasive nowadays, including patients with liver cirrhosis. Initially perceived limitations of laparoscopic liver surgery were weakened by gaining experience, technical progress and pioneering of new resection approaches. Lately robotic liver surgery was adopted to the field of MILS to further push the limits. To simplify first resections, technical variations of the minimally invasive approach can be utilized, and difficulty scores help to select resections suitable to the level of experience. We hereby give an overview of the establishing of a minimally invasive liver surgery program at our center.

Keywords: Minimally invasive liver surgery, laparoscopic liver surgery, robotic liver surgery, laparoscopy, liver, robotics


Peer Review

Externally peer-reviewed.

Author Contributions

Concept - P.J.; Design - P.J., N.M., F.L.; Supervision - P.J.; Literature Review - N.M., P.J., F.L.; Writing Manuscript - N.M.; Critical Reviews - P.J., F.L.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Financial Disclosure

The authors declared that this study has received no financial support.