Deepak Rajput, Amit Gupta, Shashank Kumar, Tanuj Singla, Kandhala Srikanth, Jaine Chennatt

Department of General Surgery, All India Institute of Medical Sciences Rishikesh, Dehradun, India


Objective: Gallbladder perforation is an infrequent entity seen among surgical patients. Rare occurrence owes to difficulty in diagnosing gallbladder perforations. The aim of the present study was to determine the optimal management strategy that may decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with this potentially life-threatening condition.

Material and Methods: This was a retrospective study from hospital health records wherein the experience of 40 consecutive patients with gallbladder rupture, either spontaneous or secondary to both benign conditions and malignancy, was noted at a tertiary care hospital over 48 months from February 2017 till January 2021. The etiology, clinical presentation, and treatment given were analysed.

Results: Out of 40 patients included, 23 were females and the majority of patients were more than 45 years of age. Twelve patients responded to intravenous antibiotics and analgesics alone while five required an ultrasound-guided pigtail catheter drainage due to non-improving clinical condition. The failure of expectant management led to a delayed laparotomy in seven patients while four patients required emergency laparotomy because of generalized peritonitis. An elective cholecystectomy was offered to 12 patients with cholecystoenteric fistulae after diagnostic laparoscopy in the same admission. Thirty-eight patients were discharged in stable condition and doing well at 30-day follow-up.

Conclusion: Gallbladder perforation is seen more commonly in acute calculous cholecystitis compared to other conditions. It is more evident when the treatment of acute calculous cholecystitis is delayed by more than 6-8 weeks. The spectrum of clinical presentation varies from mild pain and vomiting to generalized peritonitis. The patient often requires a step-up approach to control the ongoing sepsis for an improved outcome.

Keywords: Acute calculous cholecystitis, secondary gallbladder rupture, gallbladder perforation, acalculous cholecystitis, biliary peritonitis

Cite this article as: Rajput D, Gupta A, Kumar S, Singla T, Srikanth K, Chennatt J. Clinical spectrum and management outcome in gallbladder perforation-a sinister entity: Retrospective study from Sub-Himalayan region of India. Turk J Surg 2022; 38 (1): 25-35.


Ethics Committee Approval

The ethical approval for this study was obtained from All India Institute of Medical Sciences Institutional Ethics Committee (Date: 09.04.2021, Decision No: 167).

Peer Review

Externally peer-reviewed.

Author Contributions

Concept - D.R.; Design - S.K., D.R.; Supervision - D.R., A.G.; Materials - A.G.; Data Collection and/or Processing - D.R., T.S.; Analysis and/or Interpretation - S.K., K.S.; Literature Search - D.R., J.J.C.; Writing Manuscript - D.R., S.K.; Critical Reviews -All of authors.

Conflict of Interest

The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.

Financial Disclosure

The authors declared that this study has received no financial support.