Ahmet Cem Esmer1, Tahsin Çolak1, Akay Edizsoy1, Deniz Tazeoğlu1, Ahmet Serdar Karaca2

1Department of Surgical Oncology, Mersin University Faculty of Medicine, Mersin, Türkiye
2Clinic of General Surgery, Başkent University Faculty of Medicine İstanbul Hospital, İstanbul, Türkiye


Objective: This study aimed to determine the usage status of laparoscopic procedures in general surgical practice in Türkiye, which is a sample of middle-income countries.

Material and Methods: The questionnaire was sent to general surgeons, gastrointestinal surgeons, and surgical oncologists who have completed their residency training and are actively working in university, public or private hospitals. Demographic data, laparoscopy training and the period of education, the rate of laparoscopy use, the type and volume of laparoscopic surgical procedures, their views on the advantages and disadvantages of laparoscopic surgery, and the reasons for preferring laparoscopy were determined with a 30-item questionnaire.

Results: Two hundred and forty-four questionnaires from 55 different cities of Türkiye were evaluated. The responders were mainly males, younger surgeons (F/M= 11.1/88.9 % and 30-39 y/o), and graduated from the university hospital residence program (56.6%). Laparoscopic training was frequently taken during residency (77.5%) in the younger age group, while the elderly participants mostly received additional training after specialization (91.7%). Laparoscopic surgery was mostly not available in public hospitals for advanced procedures (p< 0.0001) but was available for cholecystectomy and appendectomy operations (p= NS). However, participants working in university hospitals mostly stated that the laparoscopic approach was the first choice for advanced procedures.

Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the surgeons working in MICs spent strong effort to use laparoscopy in daily practice, especially in university and high-volume hospitals. However, inappropriate education, cost of laparoscopic equipment, healthcare policies, and some cultural and social barriers might have negatively impacted the widespread use of laparoscopic surgery and its usage in daily practice in MICs such as Türkiye.

Keywords: Laparoscopy, laparoscopy training, questionnaire, residency

Cite this article as: Esmer AC, Çolak T, Edizsoy A, Tazeoğlu D, Karaca AS. Current status of laparoscopic surgery usage in Türkiye: A middle-income country. Turk J Surg 2022; 38 (4): 353-361.


Ethics Committee Approval

This study was approved by Mersin University Rectorate Clinical Research Ethics Committee (Decision no: 528, Date: 04.12.2019).

Peer Review

Externally peer-reviewed.

Author Contributions

Concept – ACE, AE, DT, ASK; Design – ACE, DT, AE; Supervision – ACE, TÇ; Data Collection and/ or Processing – ACE, DT, AE; Analysis and/or Interpretation – ACE, TÇ, ASK; Literature Search – ACE, TÇ, AE; Writing Manuscript – ACE, TÇ; Critical Reviews – TÇ, ASK.

Conflict of Interest

The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.

Financial Disclosure

The authors declared that this study has received no financial support.