Caner Doğan, Ersin Borazan, Latif Yılmaz, Ahmet A. Balık

Department of General Surgery, Gaziantep University Faculty of Medicine, Gaziantep, Türkiye


Objective: Iatrogenic bile duct injury (IBDI) is a serious complication of cholecystectomy that may crucially affect long-term quality of life and have major morbidities. Furthermore, even after reconstructive surgical treatment, such injuries still reduce the long-term quality of life. Therefore, there remains a need to investigate long-term quality of life of the patients since it is considered that there is a long-term decrease in both physical and mental quality of life. Accordingly, this study aimed to investigate the clinical evaluations and long-term quality of life of the patients who had undergone reconstructive surgery for iatrogenic bile duct injury.

Material and Methods: This clinical study included 49 patients (38 females/11 males) with cholecystectomy-associated bile duct injury and who underwent reconstruction surgery. Several parameters, including the type of bile duct injury, reconstructive surgical procedures, length of hospital stay, and complications were evaluated. Moreover, the effects of reconstructive surgical timing (perioperative, early postoperative, late postoperative) on quality of life were assessed. Long term quality of life (LTQL) levels were evaluated using the SF-36 questionnaire in patients whose follow-ups ranged from two to nine years. The SF-36 questionnaire scores were compared to the average SF-36 norm values of the healthy Turkish population.

Results: Our results showed that 73.5% of biliary tract injuries occurred after a laparoscopic surgery while 26.5% after open cholecystectomy. Of the injuries, 32.7% developed in patients with acute cholecystitis. Thirty of the patients were treated with hepaticojejunostomy. When SF-36 questionnaire scores of the study were compared to those of the healthy Turkish population, energy-vitality was found to be lower significantly in male patients (p= 0.041). However, there was no significant deterioration in female patients. Although general health perception was better in hepaticojejunostomy according to the type of reconstructive surgery performed, no significant difference was observed in the quality of life. Mental health, energy-vitality (p= 0.019), and general health perception (p= 0.026) were found to be lower in women who had E1 -E2 injuries. Only seven of the injuries were detected perioperatively. Physical function (p= 0.033) and general health perception (p= 0.035) were found to be lower in the early postoperative treatment group in male patients in terms of the time of reconstructive surgery.

Conclusion: IBDIs cause serious morbidity. Furthermore, even after reconstructive surgical treatment, such injuries still reduce LTQL. Our results suggest that LTQL is lower, especially in male patients undergoing postoperative early biliary repair for Strasberg E3 -E4 type injuries.

Keywords: Bile duct injury, cholecystectomy, complication, hepaticojejunostomy, quality of life, SF-36

Cite this article as: Doğan C, Borazan E, Yılmaz L, Balık AA. How much is the long-term quality of life impaired in cholecystectomy-related biliary tract injury? Turk J Surg 2023; 39 (1): 34-42.


Ethics Committee Approval

This study was approved by Gaziantep University Clinical Research Ethics Committee (Reference no: 2018/340, Date: 13.03.2019).

Peer Review

Externally peer-reviewed.

Author Contributions

Concept - CD, AB; Design - AB, CD; Supervision - AB, EB, CD; Fundings - CD, EB; Materials - CD, LY; Data Collection and/ or Processing - CD, LY; Analysis and/or Interpretation - AB, EB; Literature Search - CD, EB; Writing Manuscript - CD, EB; Critical Reviews - CD, AB.

Conflict of Interest

The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.

Financial Disclosure

The authors declared that this study has received no financial support.