Ege Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Patoloji Anabilim Dalı, İzmir


Previous studies have identified many prognostic factors for breast carcinoma. The information provided by the pathologists has not only implied prognostic aspects of tumors, but also has played a role in therapeutic approaches. Today, the main prognostic factors of breast carcinoma regrouped under four catagories:

1-Pathologic prognostic factors evaluated with conventional methods.
2-Factors associated with cell kinetics of tumors.
3- Proteins related with receptors and oestrogens.
4-Proto -oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes.

The pathologic prognostic factors evaluated with conventional methods provide useful information on guiding the follow-up and therapy of patients. But there is a need for a more detailed study for the identification of patients subgroups resistant to chemotherapy and hormonal therapy. Recent evidence has suggested that oestrogen related proteins as well as the receptor proteins have an important role in response to hormonal therapy and proto-oncogens like the c-erb-B-2 oncoprotein has been identified as a factor affecting the response to chemotherapy.